R Sarkar Inorganic Chemistry Pdf Download
Silver (Ag) is a valuable metal because it is an element thatÂ is inexpensive. With superior corrosion resistance, silver is a common, widely used alloy.
In 1921, chemists discovered that silverÂ is the only one of the 96 elements found on earth that does not accumulate in living tissue. SilverÂ is nontoxic and does not harm the body.Â The electrochemical activities of silver make it well suited to various applications. For example, silverÂ is a highly effective antimicrobial agent and, as such, it is used as a food additive for this purpose. Because of its antimicrobial properties, silver can be utilized to produce silver-impregnated dressings and contact lenses for the prevention of infections. SilverÂ is also used to coat medical devices such as catheters.
SilverÂ has been used for about 2000 years. During this time, its properties have been known and appreciated, and it has been used in cleaning, jewelry, photography, dentistry, and home remedies. Scientists have been using silverÂ for a long time and have found many ways to use it.Â Most recently, chemists have been studying silverÂ because of its important role in various industries. For example, in 2007,Â the world spent more than $6 billion on silver. In 2008, the silverÂ market totaled approximately $7.65 billion, of which 97 percent were used for industrial and commercial purposes.Â The size of the silver industry can be best appreciated by examining the production of silver in the United States. In 2007, U.S. demand for silver totaled $1.4 billion.
SilverÂ is the eleventh most abundant metal on Earth; it is usually present at a ratio of approximately 1 to 10,000,000.Â Silver is an expensive metal. TableÂ 1Â shows the estimated production, use, and value of silver in 2006. By comparison, TableÂ 2Â estimates the approximate production and uses of other metals.Silver is found in two oxidation states, namely, silver (Ag+) and silverÂ (Ag0). The most common oxidation states of silver areÂ +I andÂ 0; each oxidation state has several isomeric forms. For example, the oxidation state of silver is often defined as having a single electron in its outermost shell. This is called its valence. The valence
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