Langkasuka Full [EXCLUSIVE] Movie With Malay Subtitles 72
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Langkasuka Full Movie With Malay Subtitles 72
1 in practice this is a much higher proportion. a recent estimate in a british journal, the library, suggests that the total number of malay manuscripts in british collections is around 13,000.
2 the paper is in a good state of preservation, having been well protected from the effects of moisture.
3 i have been unable to confirm this, but hope to do so eventually.
4 i have described the methods of picturing the watermark in several articles. see the selected bibliography below for the references.
5 when a paper was examined in the british museum, the watermark was found to be present in half of the sheets.
6 the three currencies, pounds, shillings and pence are identified by the text in the watermark.
7 for the interested reader i should add that the malay words ketisand ketisdo not occur in the corpus. the search method used was to select the word ketisand then to look-through to the word ketiswith the same first letter.
8 the terms keramatandkeramatare also not used in the corpus.
9 for the interested reader, i should add that the watermark was found to be present in approximately half the papers in the british museum.
a number of theories have been advanced for the origin of malay scriptory. of these, the theory that the medium of the early manuscripts was the chinese brush, which is now known to be the case of only a very few manuscripts, is not especially plausible. the theory that it was the chinese brush but that the paper was locally made, is tempting, but this is also possible only with the chinese brush. the same may be said for the theory that it was the chinese brush but that the paper was originally made locally. the theory that the paper was locally made but that the chinese brush was used to write the text, seems to me to be very likely. in this connection it should be noted that the first malay manuscripts written on paper are also characterised by their chinese brush watermark, which may be taken as evidence that the chinese brush was used to write the text and paper at the same time. the theory that the chinese brush and chinese paper were made locally is also attractive, but the chinese brush seems to be an impossible solution. it is perfectly possible for the chinese brush to be made locally, but it is a chinese brush, with chinese characteristics. in this connection it should be noted that there are no chinese characters in any part of the malay languages. what is more, even in china, the chinese character is not a native form of writing, but a loanword from a native script in the second millennium bc (drewes 1968: 17). in the malay area, on the other hand, the indigenous writing system is the malay script: the use of the chinese brush seems to have come with islam. it is to be expected that the scribes of this manuscript would have used it to write their manuscripts, because it is the only script they knew. the idea that they wrote on paper imported from china seems to me a very probable one, and not without support from the evidence so far.
the present malay paper is made with the e.d. or the d.w. (see 2 russell jones 19722015all authors farouk yahya & russell jones published online:03 august 2021figure a. four malay manuscripts displayed.
in summary, this study has been concerned with the relationship between the malay language and the script which the malays use in sumatra, and to the malay peninsula. the evidence we have considered has been drawn from sumatra and the malay peninsula. we may deal with the malay scriptor tradition as an important extension into the field of southeast asian studies.
even if the language was not so closely connected with the peninsula as to be closely connected with jawi, if the area of the early malay scriptory extended from sumatra to eastern indonesia, the paper tradition would certainly have extended with it.
after a moment’s study of the inscription, i was struck by the similarity of the letters and the appearance of the cross to the letters which a few minutes earlier i had been studying in the paper that the scribe used for his malay manuscript. could it be that they were both made in the same workshop, or on the same rollers? this suspicion was confirmed when i examined the lemar in detail. the script is in the form of a cyrillic letter, made by cutting, and joining together, two shapes, which are similar to the letters with which i was familiar. the letter also had the distinctive cross, and the form of the cross was the same as that in the inscription on the paper that the scribe used for his malay manuscript. the inscription on the paper used by the scribe who wrote the malay manuscripts was written in the same cyrillic script and the cross was also the same. it was the identical, the same cyrillic letters which, in turn, resembled the malay letters that i had seen on the lemar.